Author Guidelines


1) Articles are significant, fully referenced, original contributions to the academic literature, normally 3500-9000 words, although there is some flexibility. The articles section includes theoretical and empirical contributions as well as reviews providing an overview of a particular field.

2) Book Reviews are a formal paper that works to describe, analyse, and evaluate a particular book as well as to provide detailed evidence to support this analysis and evaluation. Further, a review often explains how the book compares to other works on similar topics. Reviews are normally 600-800 words in length, although there is flexibility as some books deserve a longer assessment. If you think that a book might be suitable for a review, please correspond with the Editor.

3) Editorials are at the invitation of the Editor (or editorial board member).

The readership of the African Journal for Transformational Scholarship is international and interdisciplinary, so please avoid technical language that would make the material inaccessible to readers from other disciplines. Where technical terms are unavoidable, please define them clearly when first used.



The OJS system requires you to first register as a reader. Please follow the steps as indicated and fill in the required fields. Before you can submit your article, contact the editor so you can also be registered as an author. An OJS user guide can be downloaded at



Articles and reviews should be submitted electronically in the following formats:

1) An editable version in MS Word or other compatible format.

2) A non-editable version in PDF.



i) Title Page (separate page)

• Title – centred, Times New Roman, capitals, bold, 14pt.

• Author(s) – centred, Times New Roman, capitals, not bold, 13pt.

• Institution, Address of Institution and Email address for all authors – centred, Times New Roman, lower-case (initial letters capital), italic, 12pt. Superscript lower-case letters should be used for authors from different institutions.

ii) Abstract and Keywords (separate page)

• Abstract (heading: centred, Times New Roman, capitals, not bold, italics, 12pt) – please provide a summary of the article, including the scope and major findings, in 100 to 200 words with double line spacing in Times New Roman, italics, 12pt.

• Keywords (heading: left-justified, Times New Roman, captials, 12pt) – please indicate immediately after the abstract the main keywords from your article (no more than 10 words) in lower-case (initial letters capital), Times New Roman, 12pt.

iii) Main Text

• Headings/Subheadings – the main text starts with an ‘Introduction’ and ends with ‘Conclusion’ (Acknowledgements may also be included after the conclusion) and has other article specific headings in between. It is preferred that only one level of heading be used, however, a subheading can be used if regarded as important for the manuscript.

1. Heading – this should be centred, Times New Roman, capitals, not bold, 12pt.

2. Subheading – this should be left justified, Times New Roman, lower-case (initial letters capital), italic, 12pt.

• Text – double line spacing, full justification, Times New Roman, 12pt.

• Margins – top 4cm, bottom 2.5 cm, right 2.5 cm, left 4cm.

• Tables and Figures should be centred with captions above and also centred. Illustrations (line drawings, photos etc.) should also be submitted in separate files of jpg or tiff format (300 dpi or higher) and can be in either black and white or colour.

• Captions – Times New Roman, 12pt, with title in capitals and the caption itself in italics e.g. Table 1: Christian Universities in Central and East African Countries.

• Bold type is not used except in the title of the article. Italics are to be used sparingly and especially for non-English words, abstract and captions.

• All words in a language which does not use the so called Roman/Latin alphabet (e.g. Greek or Hebrew) should be transliterated.

• Footnotes are allowed, but should be minimized.

• Quotations – when long (over 40 words), these should be inset but not enclosed in quotation marks. When short, put in single quotation marks with double quotation marks for quotations within a quotation. The final full stop comes inside quotation marks when preceded by a complete sentence.

• Acronyms – should all be written out in full the first time they occur, putting the abbreviation in brackets. Subsequently the abbreviated form can be used.

iv) References

• Use Oxford Referencing Style (Times New Roman, 10pt) – citations are in the body of the paper, using a superscript reference number, generally at the end of a sentence. A list of footnotes are at the bottom of each page with full bibliographical information alongside the reference number. Note that footnotes can be inserted using the Footnote facility in MS Word. With the full bibliographical information listed at the bottom of the page, it is not necessary to repeat that material in a list at the end of the article.

a. Book (1 author)

JS Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy, 2nd edn, Heinemann Publishers Ltd., Johannesburg, 1989, p. 1.

b. Book (2 authors)

DW Fokkema & E Kunne-Ibsch, Theories of Literature in the Twentieth Century, Hurst & Co., London, 1977, p. 136.

c. Book (3 authors)

FS Kleiner, CJ Mamiya & RG Tansey, Gardner’s Art through the Ages, 11th edn, Harcourt College Publishers, Fort Worth, 2001.

d. Chapter in edited book

IA Menkiti, ‘Physical and Metaphysical Understanding: Nature, Agency and Causation in African Traditional Thought’, in LE Brown (ed.), African Philosophy: New and Traditional Perspectives, Oxford University Press, Inc., New York, 2004, p. 108.

e. Journal article

T Strangeland, SS Dhillion & H Reksten, ‘Recognition and Development of Traditional Medicine in Tanzania’, Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 117, no. 2, 2008, pp. 290-299.

f. Report (group author)

Australian Educational Council, Young People’s Participation in Post-compulsory Education and Training, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1991.

g. Newspaper article

E Mwimbula, ‘War on HIV/Aids intensified’, The Citizen (Tanzania), eastern zone, 20 June 2014, p. 6.

h. Electronic source (specific website)

CIA World Factbook, Africa: Tanzania, 2014, CIA, retrieved 18 June 2014,

i. Electronic source (electronic journal article on a database)

S Fowler & IN Mutua, ‘Christian Higher Education in Africa’, Christian Higher Education, vol. 11, no. 5, 2012, pp. 349-352, retrieved 18 June 2014, Taylor & Francis Online database.

• Secondary source – sometimes you may read one author (secondary, e.g. Brown below) who cites another author (primary, i.e. Smith), and you want to use what the primary author has said. You should cite the primary author using a superscript number in the ways already discussed. However, the footnote should list both sources, as follows:

A Kagame, La Philosophie Bantu-Rwandaise de l’Etre, Academic Royale de Sciences Coloniales, Brussels, 1956, cited in JS Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy, 2nd edn, Heinemann Publishers Ltd., Johannesburg, 1989, p. 11.

• Repeat citations – please do not use the Latin abbreviations op. cit., loc. cit., ibid. When a particular source is cited more than once in a paper, the full bibliographic details are not provided each time in a footnote. Please rather use the author’s family name, part of the title and the page number as in the example below:

Mbiti, African Religions, p. 5.

• If available please provide online links and include DOIs for references. This will ease citation tracking.

v) Biblical References – Do not abbreviate books of the Bible in the main text or in the footnotes, but write as follows, e.g. 1 Samuel 7:12 or Luke 8:16-18. Indicate the version if different from the New International Version (e.g. NKJV, ESV, GNB).

vi) Acceptable English – The journal will assist, if necessary, in ensuring an acceptable academic standard for contributions that show promise. However, before submission of the manuscript ensure that the manuscript has been fully copyedited and that you have run a grammatical check on the English language. If your manuscript does not meet the above requirements you run the risk of the paper being rejected outright!

vii) Affiliations – a suitable note of the author’s position for addition at the end of the article is also needed in not more than 25 words.


E. Book Review Submissions

Before submitting a book review or if there is a book you would like reviewed please correspond with the Editor.

Please lay out the heading as in the following example:

John S. Mbiti; African Religions and Philosophy, 2nd edn.; Johannesburg: Heinemann Publishers Ltd., 1989. 288 pp. pb. US$39.18. ISBN 978-0-435-89591-4

Please do not indent the first line of the opening paragraph, but do indent the first line of subsequent paragraphs. Single quotation marks should be used for all quotations, double quotation marks being reserved for quotes within quotes. References to a particular page should be given as a number only within brackets, e.g. 'There are hints (85, 92) that other perspectives exist'. Please do not use footnotes. Any references to sources other than the book under review should be put in brackets within the text of the review. The following style should be used for biblical references: 1 Jn. 1:10, Ps. 22:9-11, 2 Tim. 1:8, 2:14, 22.

Please provide a short biographical note for each author (no more than 50 words each).  


Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.

  1. The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  2. The submission file is in Microsoft Word (and PDF) or other compatible format.
  3. Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  4. The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines, which includes the AJTS House Style and is found in About the Journal.

Copyright Notice

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

a. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.

b. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.

c. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).


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